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SUPPORT COMMUNICATION – CUSTOMER NOTICE
Document ID: c00832103
Notice: (Revision) Is It the HPE Way? Verification of Authentic HPE Universal Hard Drives (SAS, SATA, FATA, SCSI, iSCSI, Fibre Channel), Solid State Drives (SSDs), and PCIe IO Accelerator Cards (ioDrives)
NOTICE: The information in this document, including products and software versions, is current as of the Release Date. This document is subject to change without notice.
Release Date: 2016-03-08
Last Updated: 2016-03-10
Around the world, a number of fraudulent HPE Universal hard drives (SAS, SATA, FATA, SCSI, iSCSI, Fibre Channel), Solid State Drives (SSDs), and PCIe IO Accelerator Cards (ioDrives) are being represented as new HPE product. These drives are packaged as HPE Option Kits and Spares Kits. HPE is providing the following information to allow verification of authentic HPE drives.
However, the information provided in this document regarding some of the typical means to ascertain genuine from counterfeit HPE products is not all-inclusive, as there are also non-public means that HPE uses to determine authenticity. Authentication by HPE may be the only means of determining whether a product is genuine or not, and details of that authentication process will not be made public.
To verify that HPE drives are authentic, use the information provided in the Details section below.
NOTE: Information on verification of older labeling and packaging of Compaq Parallel SCSI hard drives is available in the following document (c00833220):
(Revision) Verification of Authentic Compaq Universal SCSI Hard Drives
What Is the HPE Way?
With hard drives, SSDs, and ioDrives, it starts with the highest quality drives. HPE works with Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to create specific HPE firmware, drivers, and software that provide optimized performance and manageability. Only the major drive OEMs are considered, and then only after HPE is satisfied with the ongoing quality and reliability of their product. Only after every system has been tested with every supported drive, and it has been confirmed that the product will work in all HPE systems, will an HPE Option Kit be created.
Most HPE drives are purchased directly from the OEMs, and HPE continues to work directly with these OEMs throughout the life of the product to ensure that only the highest quality products are delivered to HPE customers. If any quality issues develop, the product is purged from HPE inventory and controlled by date code and product ID to ensure that known issues cannot be reintroduced into HPE inventory. In addition, drive OEMs are required to also institute date code controls to prevent substandard drives from being shipped to HPE.
NOTE: For more information on HPE’s drive qualification process, please refer to the following documents:
HPE’s concern does not stop with the shipment of the product, however. HPE ensures high customer satisfaction by providing high levels of service on HPE drives that are installed in HPE systems.
To ensure that customers can differentiate generic components or used components that have been manipulated to represent new authentic HPE Drive Option Kits, HPE also uses specific packaging, including HPE tamper evident labels.
How to Tell if It Is the HPE Way
When you are among the “best in class,” others will try to copy you and fraudulently benefit from your success. Some will go so far as to use the same part numbers and kit assembly structures in an attempt to convince customers that they are selling the same product that is sold in the HPE Kits. Counterfeits are common and can be easy to recognize, if you know what to look for.
Since different kit part numbers may have a different quantity of modules per kit, there are several formats in which product may be shipped. For the same part number, there should not be differences with the packaging from kit to kit. Cardboard, plastic, and foam packaging materials can be easily duplicated. Although the packaging may be very similar and may contain the same documentation as an HPE Kit, it may not be an authentic HPE Kit.
Over time, HPE has made changes to product packaging to ensure that authentic functional product is received by our customers. The following information will help you to identify authentic HPE labels.
Tamper Evident Seals
The opening end of the clamshell package is sealed with a unique HPE tamper evident seal to ensure that the product inside has not been tampered with.
Tamper evident seals have the same security features as the hardware security labels that will help validate that the kit is authentic. The seals are made of destructible material that will not allow the label to be removed from the carton without damaging the seal where it was opened. The seals can easily be sliced open for product opening.
Taping, or using any other means of reattaching the label, is fraudulent. If there are no seals, or if the seals have been tampered with in any way, question the validity of the kit. If the seals do not have the proper security features, the integrity of the product may be questionable and should be further identified and qualified before determining that it is an authentic HPE product.
Figure 1: Tamper Evident Seal
Option Kit Labels
Each Option Kit is labeled with consistent information on the exterior of the Option Kit packaging to identify the product, its origin, and other specific tracking details necessary to HPE and our OEM partners, as shown in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Option Kit Labels
Universal Hard Drive Packaging
Inside the Option Kit and Spares Kit cartons, the drives are protected and secured in the packaging. Each drive is sealed inside an antistatic bag and cradled in a styrofoam or thermal form bun inside the box, as shown in Table 2 below:
Table 2: Internal Packaging Used for Spares Kits and Option Kits
Table 3: External Packaging with Tamper Evident Seal
Is It Labeled HPE/Compaq on the Drive?
HPE labels drives with various and different labels that may have the HP logo (or OEM logo) and specific component or tracking information on the label. All HPE drives have a tamper evident security label applied to them during the manufacturing process.
Label on Solid State Drive
Label on SAS Drive with HP Logo
Label on SAS Drive without HP Logo
Table 4: Labeling Used on Hard Drives and Solid State Drives
Security the HPE Way
HPE has used several different security labels for verification and authentication of HPE product. These labels have many layered security features that provide covert and overt security to keep the labels from being counterfeited. When there is a risk of the primary features being counterfeited, HPE must either expose the next set of features or change the primary feature in order to provide high confidence in product authentication.
Table 5: HPE Security Labels (2002 – Present)
There are also multiple covert features that are not disclosed. Although any of the versions of labels pictured below may be available on product in the field, the earlier versions would indicate older product or potentially a counterfeit product. Many counterfeits contain similar color shifts to those mentioned in this advisory. Additional validations are possible with assistance from HPE by contacting the following email address:
The printed information on the label may also be used to distinguish how the product was shipped from HPE and can be verified for warranty. Option Kits will include a number known as the Security Code (see Figure 2 below). Only product shipped in an Option Kit should be sold in the HPE sales channel. Anything with a different format should be considered suspect and may not be eligible for warranty.
Figure 2: HPE Security Label Showing the Security Code (S/C)
Figure 3: Current HPE Security Label Showing the Commodity Tracking (CT) Number
HPE also includes a serial number on each Option Kit package that is linked to the number printed on the label. Beware that it is a common practice for counterfeiters to “reuse” serial numbers listed on the packaging (and often on the invoice) and the number printed on the product label in an effort to convince a customer that the product is authentic. The serial number is not intended to be used for product validation.
The latest HPE security label, which began in June 2015, contains the security features indicated below:
Use holograms for authentication:
– Rotate label up and down – the “ok” and “check mark” move in opposite directions towards and away from the center logo
– Rotate label left and right – the “ok” and “check mark” move in the same direction around the center logo
Figure 4: Current HP Security Label
Previous HP security label, which began shipping in March 2011, contains the primary security features indicated below. Although slight alterations were made between March and July, the primary validation features remain unchanged. These features should be used to validate these labels:
Figure 5: HP Security Label (June 2011 – December 2015)
Previous labels used color shift technology as indicated in Table 1 (above). The color bars found on either side of the HP logo on the most recently retired version of the HP security label use two different color-shifting inks. On the left side of the HP logo is a bar ofcolor-shifting ink shift that will change from Green to Red as you raise and lower the component. On the right side of the HP logo is a bar that will change from Pink to Green under different lighting. The Green-to-Red color-shifting ink on the left side of the HP logo also contains an outline of Red around the color-shifting ink which does not shift in color. In addition, the upper right hand corner of the label contains a unique identification number for each security label.
Figure 6: HP Security Label (October 2008 – June 2011)
The right side of the label has a block of color which will change under different lighting sources (see Figure 5 above). When viewed under fluorescent lighting, the right bar will be a pale Pink color. If it is viewed under natural sunlight or incandescent light, it will be a light Sage or Green color. If sunlight or incandescent lighting is not available, taking a photo using a flash camera, or shining a flashlight on the product, will allow for light verification. If the color does not change, or if the colors are not the pale Green to pale Pink swap, then consider the product to be suspected as counterfeit.
Although additional features are included in all security labels for security reasons, these additional features will not be communicated to the public until there has been an attempt to compromise the primary feature(s).
In addition to the visible Security Features listed above, the HPE security labels contain a tamper evident feature that leaves adhesive behind on the original object and makes the label appear somewhat transparent when it has been tampered with (see Figures 7 – 11 below).
Any product with a label that shows signs of tampering should be considered fraudulent. When removal is attempted, the tamper evident feature will leave a pattern of adhesive on the item to which it was applied. If there is no pattern left or if there are words such as VOID, question the authenticity of the product. In addition, if the label has been lifted from the product and adhesive is shown to be left behind, and there are no visible transparent marks on the front of the label, it is an additional indication of a counterfeit product.
To verify the tamper evidence, the label should be lifted ONLY half-way up. One side MUST remain adhered to the product and show no signs of tampering.
HP will not warrant any product from which the label has been completely lifted.
Figure 7: Adhesive left behind on product (left) and signs of tampering on label (right) on current label
Figure 8: Adhesive left behind on product (left) and signs of tampering on label (right) on previous label
Product shipped with the previous version of the security label will use a pattern of adhesive with the symbol, as shown in Figures 7 – 9 below:
Figure 11: Adhesive characteristics of older version Tamper Evident labels
Based on the printed bar code numbers on a security label, HPE can determine the date shipped and the warranty given to that part, as well as the supplier or site of manufacture for the part. The information needed to decode each digit on any security label is proprietary information that is not distributed outside of HPE.
Price as an Indicator of Authenticity
HPE offers product at competitive prices based on the product life cycle and the customer’s affiliation with HPE. If you are an authorized reseller or a direct customer, your pricing may be more competitive than if you are not. However, HPE does not grossly discount product that is on the price list. If the product that is offered by HPE at one value and offered by another company at a substantial discount (for example, 50 percent off), then you may be certain that the product was either not distributed through the HPE sales channel, or is part of some type of illegal activity. It is not “excess” or any other description that the counterfeiter may use that allows them to deceive customers into accepting low cost counterfeit product.
Furthermore, even product offered at a discount of 10-20 percent should be subject to scrutiny. Many counterfeiters use smaller discounts to appear legitimate, because they know that their product is not going to be sought after if they cannot get it into the hands of a reputable reseller. The internet provides a high level of anonymity that helps to protect them from discovery.
Know your reseller! Have a person-to-person conversation with your reseller to help in protecting the systems you support from counterfeit product. And, most importantly, know the value of the product. If the deal is too good to be true, then it is probably is not HPE!
Other Products That Look the HP Way
While qualifying hard drives, SSDs, and ioDrives in HPE systems, supplier process issues may be uncovered which negatively affect HPE systems. The supplier develops a corrective action plan to prevent drives with those issues from being shipped to HPE. Drives from a supplier that fail the qualification system may still be sold to other customers. There is no information published by HPE or the drive supplier to show which product is qualified and which may have failed the qualification process. Together, HPE and the drive supplier tightly control the product that is shipped to HPE for use in systems and Option Kits.
Although some third party drive manufacturers may also contribute to the confusion by using the HPE part number, do not be deceived by this attempt at making the product appear authentic. Ensure that the kit that was represented as a new HPE kit contains authentic HPE drives by validating the security features on seals and labels. There is no bulk product sold by HPE for server systems, so be cautious of claims that any drives are new bulk. This product could be counterfeit or product with limited warranty (or no warranty) from HPE. In order to ensure that the product is authentic hard drives, SSDs, or ioDrives, customers should only buy the product from reliable sources.
Other drive vendors may indicate that their product is “equivalent to” or “compatible with” certain HPE systems or kit part numbers. This is not an endorsement from HPE. There have been no tests performed by HPE using other drives, and HPE will not warrant a non-HPE kit. Additionally, if a system is damaged as a direct result of the non-HPE product, the warranty of the whole system can be negated.
Is It Identified as HPE/Compaq Inside the Hard Drive?
Beyond the external packaging and labeling, there are identifying features stored within the hard drive that can be accessed to assist with the determination of authenticity. All HPE/Compaq Universal hard disk drives and Solid State Drives have unique firmware installed that will identify the drive as HPE/Compaq.
The following utilities can be used to query a hard drive to help make this determination:
By using these tools, the hard drive identification (ID) string can be viewed. All HPE/Compaq universal drives will identify themselves as HP/Compaq along with a valid model number and firmware version.
The following are examples of a Power-On Self-Test (POST) message and a portion of an Array Diagnostics Utility (ADU) Report:
POST message displayed (when hard drive is attached to a SCSI controller):
ID 0 – HP/COMPAQ BD018635C4 ID 1- HP/COMPAQ BD018635C4
Portion of an ADU Report:
SCSI Port 2, Drive ID 0
What If It Is Not the HPE Way?
Even though a kit may have been represented as an HPE kit, HPE will not warrant a kit that is not authentic. The liability for the kit belongs to the reseller from which the kit was purchased. HPE contractual agreements with HPE authorized resellers include agreed upon terms and conditions that allow HPE to govern replacement of any product if the product is purchased from an HPE authorized reseller. However, HPE cannot govern replacement of any product purchased from a reseller who is NOT authorized to sell the product (even if it is authentic HPE product) since there are no contractual agreements with that reseller. If customers choose to purchase products from a reseller who is NOT an HPE authorized reseller, the customer may have to resolve any product issues without the assistance of HPE.
While HPE is working to combat the issue of fraudulent and counterfeit reproductions of our kits, customers are strongly urged to protect themselves by buying only from authorized resellers and validating the authenticity of the kits upon receipt. If you encounter any product that is suspected as being counterfeit, the product should be validated and fraudulent drives should be returned to the reseller in return for authentic HPE drives. In the event that counterfeit product is identified, it is important that HPE be contacted with the following required information via the following web address:
NOTE: Based upon the information supplied in the email to HPE, in some instances it may be necessary for the product to be sent to HPE for further identification.
IMPORTANT: ALL COUNTERFEIT DRIVES SENT TO HPE WILL BE CONFISCATED.
If counterfeit product is cross-shipped to HPE in place of an authentic HPE Spares Kit, the customer will be charged for the kit. If any drives that are sent to HPE for validation or for other service related issues are determined to be counterfeit, it will be confiscated. If counterfeit product is found onsite and the customer agrees to allow the product to be taken from the premises, it will not be returned if it is found to be counterfeit.
If counterfeit product is discovered during a service event by an HPE badged technician, the customer should be informed that the product is counterfeit and instructed to contact the reseller of the drives and request replacement with authentic HPE drives. If possible, the counterfeit drives should be removed from the system in order to prevent future failures pertaining to the fraudulent drives. With the permission of the customer, the counterfeit product should be sent to HPE Corporate Security in Houston, Texas.
NOTE: It is the responsibility of the reseller to provide authentic product to customers. HPE will make every effort to help customers regain operational ability with authentic product, after this process is completed.
If, while using the end user replacement process, the drives are not properly validated and is sent to HPE in exchange for a replacement spare part, the customer will be charged the full amount of a non-returned Spares Kit.
Questions regarding the legal use of such confiscated drives may be directed to the following email address for distribution to the HPE legal department:
RECEIVE PROACTIVE UPDATES : Receive support alerts (such as Customer Advisories), as well as updates on drivers, software, firmware, and customer replaceable components, proactively via e-mail through HPE Subscriber’s Choice. Sign up for Subscriber’s Choice at the following URL: Proactive Updates Subscription Form.
NAVIGATION TIP : For hints on navigating HPE.com to locate the latest drivers, patches, and other support software downloads for ProLiant servers and Options, refer to the Navigation Tips document.
SEARCH TIP : For hints on locating similar documents on HPE.com, refer to the Search Tips document.
To search for additional advisories related to counterfeit product, use the following search string:
+Advisory +ProLiant -“Software and Drivers” +counterfeit
Hardware Platforms Affected: HP 160GB Single Level Cell PCIe ioDrive for ProLiant Servers, HP 320GB Multi Level Cell PCIe ioDrive for ProLiant Servers, HP 320GB Single Level Cell PCIe ioDrive Duo for ProLiant Servers, HP 50 Modular Smart Array, HP 60 Modular Smart Array, HP 600 Modular Disk System, HP 640GB Multi Level Cell PCIe ioDrive Duo for ProLiant Servers, HP 70 Modular Smart Array, HP 9000 Superdome (SX1000) Servers, HP Blade Server bp2200, HP BladeSystem c3000 Enclosures, HP BladeSystem c7000 Enclosures, HP D2000 Disk Enclosures, HP D2200sb Storage Blade, HP D2D100 Backup System, HP D2D110 Backup System, HP D2D120 Backup System, HP D2D130 Backup System, HP D2D2502i Backup System, HP D2D2503i Backup System, HP D2D2504i Backup System, HP D2D4004fc Backup System, HP D2D4004i Backup System, HP D2D4009fc Backup System, HP D2D4106fc Backup System, HP D2D4106i Backup System, HP D2D4112 Backup System, HP D2D4312 Backup System, HP Integrity BL60p Server, HP Integrity BL860c Server Blade, HP Integrity BL870c i2 Server Blade, HP Integrity BL890c i2 Server Blade, HP Integrity Superdome sx1000 Server, HP Integrity Superdome sx2000 Server, HP Integrity rx1600 Server, HP Integrity rx1620 Server, HP Integrity rx2600 Server, HP Integrity rx2620 Server, HP Integrity rx2660 Servers, HP Integrity rx3600 Server, HP Integrity rx4610 Server, HP Integrity rx4640 Server, HP Integrity rx5670 Server, HP Integrity rx6600 Server, HP Integrity rx7620 Server, HP Integrity rx7640 Server, HP Integrity rx8620 Server, HP Integrity rx8640 Server, HP Integrity rx9610 Server, HP LeftHand P4000 SAN Solutions, HP P9500 Processor Blade, HP Performance Optimized Data Center (POD) 20c/40c, HP ProLiant BL260c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL280c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL2x220c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL2x220c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL2x220c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL460c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL460c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL460c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL460c Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL465c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL465c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL465c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL465c Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL480c Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL490c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL490c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL495c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL495c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL620c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL680c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL680c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL685c G5 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL685c G6 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL685c G7 Server Blade, HP ProLiant BL685c Server Blade, HP ProLiant DL120 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL120 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL120 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL160 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL160 G5 Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL160 G5p Server, HP ProLiant DL160 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL160se G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL165 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL165 G5p Server, HP ProLiant DL165 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL165 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL170e G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL170h G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL180 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL180 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL185 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL185 G5 Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL2x170h G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL320 G4 Server, HP ProLiant DL320 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL320 G5p Server, HP ProLiant DL320 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL360 G4 Server, HP ProLiant DL360 G4p Server, HP ProLiant DL360 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL360 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL360 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL365 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL370 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G4 Data Protection Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G4 Packaged Cluster with MSA1000, HP ProLiant DL380 G4 Packaged Cluster with MSA500 G2, HP ProLiant DL380 G4 Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G4 Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G5 Data Protection Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G5 Storage Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL380 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL385 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL385 G5p Server, HP ProLiant DL385 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL385 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL4x170h G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL580 G4 Server, HP ProLiant DL580 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL580 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL585 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL585 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL585 G7 Server, HP ProLiant DL785 G5 Server, HP ProLiant DL785 G6 Server, HP ProLiant DL980 G7 Server, HP ProLiant ML110 G4 Server, HP ProLiant ML110 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML110 G5 Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML110 G6 Server, HP ProLiant ML110 G7 Server, HP ProLiant ML115 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML150 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML150 G6 Server, HP ProLiant ML310 G4 Server, HP ProLiant ML310 G4 Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML310 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML310 G5p Server, HP ProLiant ML330 G6 Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G4 Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G4 Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G4p Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G4p Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G5 Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML350 G6 Server, HP ProLiant ML370 G4 Server, HP ProLiant ML370 G4 Storage Server, HP ProLiant ML370 G5 Server, HP ProLiant ML370 G6 Server, HP ProLiant ML570 G4 Server, HP ProLiant MicroServer, HP ProLiant SL160s G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL160z G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL165s G7 Server, HP ProLiant SL165z G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL165z G7 Server, HP ProLiant SL170s G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL170z G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL2x170z G6 Server, HP ProLiant SL335s G7 Server, HP ProLiant SL390s G7 Server, HP ProLiant WS460c G6 Workstation, HP ProLiant WS460c G6 Workstation Blade, HP ProLiant s6500 Scalable System Chassis, HP SB40c Storage Blade, HP StorageWorks 1200 All-in-One Storage System, HP StorageWorks 9100 Extreme Data Storage System, HP StorageWorks All-in-One SB600c Storage Blade, HP StorageWorks X1800sb Network Storage Blade, HP StorageWorks X3000 Network Storage Systems, HP StorageWorks X3800sb Network Storage Gateway Blade, HP StorageWorks X5000 G1 Network Storage Systems, HP StorageWorks XP10000 Disk Array, HP StorageWorks XP12000 Disk Array, HP StorageWorks XP128 Disk Array, HP StorageWorks XP48 Disk Array, HP StorageWorks XP512 Disk Array, HP StorageWorks b2000 NAS, HP StorageWorks b3000 NAS, HP StorageWorks e7000 NAS, HP StoreAll Storage, HP StoreEasy 3000 Gateway Storage Blade, HP StoreOnce D2D4324 Backup System, HP StoreVirtual 4000 Storage, HP X1000 Network Storage Systems, HP X1800sb G2 Network Storage Blade, HP XP P9500 Storage, HP XP1024 Disk Array, HP XP20000/XP24000 Disk Array
Software Affected: Not Applicable
Support Communication Cross Reference ID: IA00832103
©Copyright 2016 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
Hewlett-Packard Company shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. The information provided is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. To the extent permitted by law, neither HP or its affiliates, subcontractors or suppliers will be liable for incidental,special or consequential damages including downtime cost; lost profits;damages relating to the procurement of substitute products or services; or damages for loss of data, or software restoration. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Hewlett-Packard Company and the names of Hewlett-Packard products referenced herein are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Company in the United States and other countries. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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